In terms of solar energy receptors, monocrystalline and polycrystalline solar panels are the two most popular options. Both incorporate silicon photovoltaic cells, the same material found in the chips of modern devices.
However, the silicon’s crystallinity determines whether a solar cell is in fact monocrystalline or polycrystalline:
Solar panels with a single silicon crystal make up each solar PV cell in monocrystalline solar panels. These are referred to as “mono solar panels” at times.
Solar panels comprised of numerous silicon crystal pieces fused during production are known as polycrystalline PV cells. They may also be called “poly panels” or “multi-crystalline panels.”
The same process is used by both varieties of solar panels to create electricity from sunlight. However, the efficiency and appearance of individual solar cells are determined by their crystalline silicon structure. You can usually identify a solar panel type through the size and colour of its solar cells.
The most often used type of solar panel on the home market is crystalline silicon. However, many overlook that despite these two categories’ similarities, they also have several distinctions.
Here is more information on silicon solar cells, monocrystalline and polycrystalline solar panels, and how they function.
How Do Silicon Solar Cells Work?
Silicon is a solar cell’s main building block. For many years, this has been a crucial component of electrical products. Over 90% of the market for solar cells currently consists of what are known as first-generation solar panels. They are first-generation solar panels since silicon sun cell technology had already begun to take off in the 1950s. It is the original solar cell technology as a result.
On the other hand, pure crystalline silicon is a terrible conductor of electricity because its core is a semiconductor material. In addition, the silicon used in solar cells contains many impurities; this is done purposely to mix other atoms with the silicon atoms. As the freshly mixed atoms enhance silicon’s capacity to absorb solar energy and transform it into electricity, this addresses silicon’s conduction problems.
Gallium atoms have one less electron than silicon atoms, and arsenic atoms have one more electron. Therefore, there are additional electrons in the structure resulting in the placement of the arsenic atoms between the silicon atoms. As a result, an electron-rich layer develops.
Instead of using gallium atoms, you get a deficiency of electrons. This indicates that a thin electron layer will be formed. The arrangement of the layers of a solar cell results in the creation of an electric field. The energy from the sunshine stimulating the electrons causes holes to be left behind in the solar cells. Due to the existence of the electric field, they then migrate to the electrodes in the cells. Consequently, power is produced.
Monocrystalline Solar Cells
Single crystalline cells are another name for monocrystalline solar cells. Due to their dark black colour, they are exceedingly simple to spot. The most effective material for converting sunlight into energy is silicon, which is used to create monocrystalline cells since it is produced in an extraordinarily pure state.
In addition, monocrystalline silicon solar cells need the least amount of space. Therefore, of all the silicon-based solar cells, they also have the benefit of having the longest lifespan. Many manufacturers will provide warranties for this kind of system for up to 25 years, which is half its estimated lifespan.
Even though these systems are superior, they are extremely expensive. Of all the silicon solar cell varieties, monocrystalline cells are the most expensive alternative, mostly due to the considerable waste produced by the four-sided cutting procedure. Polycrystalline serves as a less expensive substitute.
Benefits and drawbacks of monocrystalline solar cells:
|Benefits of mono solar panels||Drawbacks of mono solar panels|
|Compared to other types, they take up less room because of their higher efficiency.||They are the priciest solar cells available; hence they are not affordable for everyone.|
|At 15-22%, they have the highest level of efficiency.||There is a small loss in performance with temperature increases, but this is minimal.|
|Long lifespan, with manufacturers often suplying with a 25-year warranty.||A substantial amount of waste material is produced during the manufacturing process..|
|They work better in low-light conditions, making them perfect for cloudy environments.||Can suffer a circuit breakdown in cases of the panel being covered by shade, dust, dirt or snow.|
|Are generally uniform in appearance, having a consistent black colour|
Polycrystalline Solar Cells
Multi-silicon and polysilicon cells are other names for polycrystalline solar cells. When the solar cell business emerged in the 1980s, these were the first solar cells created. The cutting procedure for polycrystalline cells is different from that for monocrystalline cells. As an alternative, melted silicon is first poured into a square mould, giving the polycrystalline its particular form.
Poly solar panels have become significantly more accessible thanks to this procedure. This is due to the minimal amount of silicon waste generated during the production process. However, they take up much more space and are less effective than monocrystalline solar cells. In addition, they are less pure than single crystalline cell models, which is the reason behind this.
Additionally, compared to monocrystalline, polycrystalline solar panels tend to have a lesser tolerance for heat. This implies they cannot perform as well in hot environments. If you live in a warmer environment, this can be a huge disadvantage.
Benefits and drawbacks of Polycrystalline solar cells:
|Benefits of poly solar panels||Drawbacks of poly solar panels|
|Compared to monocrystalline cells, the production process is more affordable and straightforward.||Are less efficient than other solar cell types in cloudy weather conditions|
|Waste silicon is largely avoided during the production process.||They are less space-efficient since they have lower output rates. As a result, installation requires greater roof space.|
|Compared to monocrystalline cells, high temperatures have a less detrimental impact on efficiency.||Due to low levels of silicon purity, efficiency is only about 13–16%. Thus, they are not the most effective products available.|
|Have a lower purity of silicon and a less uniform blueish appearance.||Have a lower purity of silicon and a less uniform bluesish appearance.|
Solar Panel Cost
The silicon composition of each solar panel is what mostly affects the price. Producers pour liquid silicon into square moulds to create polycrystalline panels. Then the wafers are sliced into individual cells.
The solidification of silicon needs to be carefully managed to make solar cells that have a single crystal. Monocrystalline panels cost more because of this trickier production procedure. Several considerations regarding solar panel costs are listed below:
When only the panels are compared, monocrystalline solar panels are more expensive.
Both solar panel types generally have the same costs for inverters, electrical protections, wiring, labour, and racking.
You might obtain a better return on your investment if you utilise monocrystalline panels because they are more effective.
Solar Panel Efficiency and Temperature Coefficient
Monocrystalline solar panels are more efficient, as was already indicated. There are still high-quality solar panels of both varieties. Therefore this does not imply that polycrystalline solar panels are defective goods. Here are some further details on efficiency:
A more efficient solar panel transforms more of the sun’s energy into electricity.
The better monocrystalline panels are nearing 23% efficiency as of 2021, while polycrystalline panels frequently have efficiencies of less than 20%.
Since polycrystalline panels are less efficient, more of them are required to produce a given number of kilowatt-hours per month.
When temperatures rise, all solar panels temporarily lose efficiency. Monocrystalline solar cells however are less sensitive to heat.
The temperature coefficient shows how much temperature has an impact on solar panels. Solar panels are all factory-tested under the same Standard Test Conditions (STC) to ensure a fair comparison. Polycrystalline solar panels often have higher temperature coefficients to consider, which means that when they heat up, they lose more output. But as technology advances, both types of solar panels now have identical low-temperature coefficients. As a result, solar panel efficiency is not a crucial concern when you have plenty of space available.
In addition, installing more polycrystalline panels to compensate for their decreased efficiency is not a problem because of their lower cost. On the other hand, monocrystalline panels will maximise electricity output in the space provided because adding more panels is not an option when you have limited space.
Solar Panel Appearance and Lifespan
The silicon structure of solar cells also affects how they seem since it affects how sunlight interacts with them and how they appear to human eyes. Monocrystalline cells are coloured black due to their single-crystal structure, whereas polycrystalline cells are coloured blue.
While both types of solar panels have a lengthy lifespan, their payback period is less than five years in many circumstances. Standard warranties from solar manufacturers cover power output for 25 years, although some companies now offer 30-year warranties.